I have three items on my latest reading of W.A. Swanberg's Norman Thomas: The Last Idealist. Norman Thomas was a six-time Socialist candidate for President of the United States.
I wondered in my last post how Thomas proposed to combat Communism,
since he was critical of right-wingers who supported a more belligerent
approach to Communism. In my latest reading, Swanberg said that Thomas
had a correspondence with Tito, the Communist leader of Yugoslavia, and
that Thomas criticized Tito's human-rights abuses and praised Tito when
Tito made improvements in the area of human rights. I think that Thomas
tried to fight Communism the way that he sought to tackle a number of
other social ills: through persuasion.
2. I've also wondered
about Thomas' religion. Thomas started out as a minister of the social
Gospel, which emphasized social justice. He later lost his faith after
one of his sons died. When his wife later died, Thomas did not seek
comfort in Christianity. Yet, Thomas said that he wanted a Christian service at his funeral (albeit one that didn't emphasize personal immortality), and he denied that he was an atheist, asserting that God was
behind human progress. Later, Thomas said that humans were responsible
for their own progress. Yet, Hiroshima and the arms race made him less
optimistic about human beings. And Thomas did not feel that
Christianity was really making people better.
A criticism of
Socialism that many make is that it is too idealistic about human
nature. Maybe, but I'd say that human nature is a negative factor in
all sorts of systems----capitalism, Communism, Socialism, etc. Does
Christianity change people? Perhaps it can, in that its teachings can
provide people with a sense of moral obligation. But there are many
cases in which it does not change people----it does not make them
unselfish, or sensitive to people's needs. Would I say, though, that
human nature is entirely bad (i.e., selfish, hateful, etc.)? Not
really, for it also has compassion and rationality. I can understand
why Thomas maintained some faith that human rationality would
be a key to human progress. Unfortunately, however, selfishness, pride,
and greed stand in the way, and that's one reason that there are wars
and exploitation of people. Perhaps Thomas continually hoped that he
could make a difference by appealing to the better angels of people's
nature. In some areas, maybe he was slightly optimistic, for Swanberg
notes that, in the 1960 Presidential debate, both candidates on some
level supported policies that Socialists had advocated years earlier.
But Thomas was also disappointed in that debate because both John F.
Kennedy and Richard Nixon were for increased military spending. What
can one do to help bring about reform? Keep talking, I guess. Keep
persuading. Keep appealing to people's rationality.
3. On page
438, Swanberg says that Kennedy tried to justify his positions to
Thomas. Why? Why was the President of the United States explaining
himself to some marginal Presidential candidate from the past? How
could a Socialist like Thomas get an audience with Eisenhower, or share a
stage with Senator Barry Goldwater for a debate? On page 438, Swanberg
says that Thomas was considered to be a national institution. That's
probably why, at least in later years, he was accorded so much respect.