I'm still reading Irwin Gellman's The Contender: Richard Nixon, The Congress Years, 1946-1952. In this post, I'll talk some about the Alger Hiss scandal.
Bentley and Whittaker Chambers were former Communists, who were
alleging that officials in the Franklin Roosevelt (and also the Harry
Truman) Administration engaged in espionage for the Soviet Union.
Chambers said that he and State Department official Alger Hiss
cooperated on such a project, back when Chambers was a Communist. When
Chambers and Hiss appeared before the House Committee on Un-American
Activities (HUAC), Hiss made a better impression than Chambers did, with
Hiss' appearance and his humor, and there were a number of people on
the committee who believed Hiss. But Chambers was sharing that he knew
specific details about Hiss----such as Hiss' hearing problems, the
layout of Hiss' apartment, and Hiss' interest in ornithology. Some of
these details turned out to be wrong----such as Hiss' hearing
problem----but other parts were remarkably accurate. Hiss, who
previously said that he was not sure if he knew Chambers because
Chambers looked like a lot of people (including Karl Mundt, who was on
HUAC!), later said that he did know Chambers because Chambers rented
from him, but he knew Chambers by another name.
But Chambers was
claiming that Hiss gave him documents to give to the Soviet Union. At
some point, Chambers hid them in a pumpkin on his farm (presumably after
copying them, in Chambers' story). Chambers
claimed that Hiss' wife typed some of the documents on her Woodstock
typewriter, in copying other documents. And Hiss' handwriting was on
some of them. Unfortunately, as far as I can see, Gellman does not
explain why the typewriter was so significant: because each typewriter
was deemed to be unique, like a fingerprint, and so, if it could be
shown that Hiss' typewriter produced those documents, then Hiss would
arguably be revealed to be the one who gave those documents to Chambers.
end result was that Alger Hiss was found guilty of perjury: "he had
lied about not seeing Chambers since January 1937 and about not giving
Chambers documents" (page 239). Nixon still maintained contact with
Chambers after Hiss' conviction, until Chambers' death in 1961.
What arguments are advanced by those who defend Hiss?
I'll speak from memory, and I'm sure that there's more that I do not
know about. Critics of Elizabeth Bentley alleged that she had
psychological problems (see here),
and Hiss referred to rumors that such was the case with Chambers. Hiss
noted that Chambers had committed perjury, and I'm not sure what Hiss
had in mind, but Gellman says on page 198 that Chambers once denied that
there were espionage rings in Washington, which "would prove a lie"
(page 198). Some have argued that Hiss at Yalta opposed a policy that
would help the Soviets (see here). Regarding the typewriter, some today claim that typewriter forgery was possible back then (see here). Plus, Hiss had given the typewriter away at some point. This wikipedia article
refers to a book by John Dean, stating that Dean wrote that Chuck
Colson told him that Nixon said HUAC built a typewriter like the one
that Hiss had, something that Colson denied. Another consideration is
that the former Soviet Union, based on its archives, denied that Alger
Hiss was a spy. But the Venona interception of Soviet cables has been
argued to indicate otherwise. But then there's debate about the
authenticity of Venona, and whether a particular code-name in those
transmissions even refers to Alger Hiss (see here and here).
argument that Chambers made was that he had a lot to lose by coming
forward, and, indeed, he did lose his magazine job (but see here for Thomas Sanction's speculation in The Nation about Chambers' motive). But
why would Hiss and Harry Dexter White engage in espionage for the
Soviet Union? Were they paid to do so? Did they want to maintain a
balance of power because they feared American hegemony and thought that a
balance of power was more conducive to peace? Or did they sincerely
desire a Soviet triumph?
In terms of Gellman's
portrayal of Nixon, Gellman essentially presents Nixon as someone who
was committed to finding the facts. Gellman disagrees with
critics who contend that Nixon knew for a while about Hiss' Communist
connections----even before Whittaker Chambers testified before
HUAC----and was seeking to make himself look heroic for his own
political advancement. Gellman states that this claim is based on interviews with Father John Francis Cronin from
1958 through the 1980s, in which Cronin said that he informed Nixon
early on about Hiss' Communist connections. (My impression is that
Cronin was knowledgeable about Communist activity in the U.S. because of
work that he did with the FBI.) But Gellman states that Cronin
retracted this claim in 1990 and said that Nixon did not know about Hiss
until Chambers mentioned Hiss before HUAC on August 3, 1948.